Vibration Analysis

Our vibration analysis certification courses exceed the requirements established by the International Standard ISO 18436-2: 2014: Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines “Requirements for qualification and assessment of personnel” Part 2:Vibration condition monitoring and diagnostics.  They combine theoretical concepts with practical workshops to provide the participants with a comprehensive knowledge to apply the required vibrational assessments, determine severities of machines based on measured vibrations and conducting condition monitoring program management and audits, using international standards. The program consists of four categories of analysis, each category building on the previous category’s skills and capabilities. Customers and employers have the greatest confidence in those vibration analysts certified by Conscious Reliability.

Vibration Analysis  ISO 18436-2 Category I 

This course represents the introduction of the broad theme of vibration analysis. This practical, theoretical course is focused on providing the participants with a comprehensive knowledge in order to evaluate the vibrational severity of some machines based on measured vibrations, using international standards. The program consists of three levels of analysis, each level building on the previous level’s skills and capabilities.

Course Goals 

Personnel certified as category I can perform a variety of simple single channel, machinery vibration condition monitoring activities according to established procedures.

All activities shall be performed under direction of a Category II (or higher) certified practitioner.

Personnel certified as Category I shall at least perform the following tasks:

  1. Know of the basic principles of vibration.
  2. Recognize the different units of measurement.
  3. Collect reliable data ensuring appropriate standards of repeatability.
  4. Identify errors in collected data.
  5. Unload data collection routes with pre-defined measurement settings for use with VA equipment and transfer data from a data collector to a computers based system.
  6. Compare overall or single-value vibration measurements against pre-established alert settings.
  7. Identify deviations from the norm for single-value vibration values and trends.
  8. Report on visual observations of equipment condition.

They shall not be responsible for:

  • The vibration sensor selection, test method, technique for any analysis, diagnosis, assessment of test results, other than identifying conditions against pre-established criteria, such as acceptance, alert, alarm, shutdown, etc.

Course content

0. Maintenance Tactics

  • Condition Monitoring.
  • Time Base Maintenance.
  • Detective Maintenance.
  • Run – to – Failure

1. Principle of Vibrations

  • Simple Harmonic Motion.
  • Period and Frequency.
  • Amplitude.
  • Parameters (Displacement, Velocity & Acceleration).
  • Vibration Displacement Units and Unit Conversions.
  • Time & Frequency Domain.

2. Data Acquisition 

  • Instruments & Transducers.
  • Sensor Mounting Techniques.
  • Test Procedures.
  • Instruments Data Upload & Download.
  • Establishing Measurement Points.
  • Recognition of Poor Data

4. Condition Monitoring

  • Fault Condition Recognition.

5. Fault Analysis

  • General Fault Recognition.
  • Common Machine Faults
  • *Unbalance, Misalignment, Looseness, Bearing Wear, Resonance, etc.

6. Corrective Action

  • Basic Maintenance Actions
  • *Lubrication.
  • *Alignment.

7. Equipment Knowledge 

  • Electrical Motor.
  • Generators.
  • Drivers.
  • Pumps.
  • Fans.
  • Compressors.
  • Process Machines.
  • Machine Tools.
  • Pipes & Structures.
  • Gearboxes.
  • Driver Machines.
  • Types of Intermediate Components.
  • Driven Machines.

8. Acceptance Testing

  • Basic Test Procedures.
  • Safety Requirements

9. Case Studies

10. Certification Exam

  • 2 hours.
  • 60 questions.
  • Closed Book.
  • On-Line.

Who Should Attend This Class?

Maintenance & Operations engineers, predictive maintenance technicians, maintenance planners, rotating equipment operators.

Class Time

There are 30 hours of class time and 2 hours for the written test for a total of 32 hours.

Vibration Analysis ISO 18436-2 Category II 

This course is focused on training participants in the detection and diagnosis of the most common problems that are generated in a wide variety of rotary machines using the cull capabilities of the vibration analyzers. The course provides an in-depth study of the typical failures of machinery and its associated spectra, time waves and phase characteristics. Other topics associated with signal processing, data collection and corrective actions are also covered.

Course Goals

At the end of the course, participants will have a broad understanding of the fundamentals of vibration, understand the meaning of all measurement and configuration operations of their data collector, understand the difference between the different types of sensors, how and where to install them or fix them and can analyze vibration spectra, time waves and phase data.

Personnel certified as Category II shall at least perform the following tasks:

  • Define the measurement activities to performed by a category I individual for routine data collection.
  • Be able  of using the basic principles of signal analysis and, as such, can define acquisition and analysis settings to collect data appropriate to the machine(s) monitored.
  • Perform basic (single – channel) impact tests to determine natural frequencies.
  • Interpret and evaluate  test results from routine analysis and acceptance tests in accordance with specifications and standards.
  • Diagnose common fault indications and recommended basic corrective actions including carrying out single-plane balancing of rigid rotors with or without phase.
  • Provide technical guidance to and instruct category I personnel.

Course Content

0. RCM-R® & Maintenance Tactics

  • RCM-R®.
  • Condition Monitoring.
  • Time Base Maintenance.
  • Detective Maintenance.
  • Run-to-Failure

1. Principle of Vibrations

  • Simple Harmonic Motion.
  • Period and Frequency.
  • Amplitude.
  • Parameters (Displacement, Velocity & Acceleration).
  • Vibration Displacement Units and Unit Conversions.
  • Time & Frequency Domain.
  • Phase Measurement.
  • Be Aware of Shaft Centerline Plot (Orbit) Analysis

2. Data Acquisition

  • Instrument & Transducers (Including Proximity Sensors)
  • Sensors Mounting Techniques.
  • Test Procedures.
  • Instruments Data Upload & Download.
  • Establishing Measurement Points.
  • Fmax, Acquisition Time.
  • Triggering.
  • Test  Planning.
  • Data Formats.

3. Signal Processing

  • FFT Application.
  • Forcing Frequencies.
  • Order Normalization.
  • Overall Value.
  • Analog Recording.
  • Digital sampling.
  • Time windows (Hanning, Uniform, Flat, Top).
  • Filters (High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Tracking).
  • Antialiasing.
  • Bandwidth & Resolution.
  • Noise Reduction.
  • Averaging (Linear, Synchronous Time, Exponential).
  • Dynamic Range.

4. Condition Monitoring

  • Equipment Evaluation and Prioritization.
  • Monitoring Program Design.
  • Baseline Assessment, Trending.
  • Route Design.
  • Fault Condition Recognition.

5. Fault Analysis

  • Spectrum Analysis, Harmonics and Sidebands.
  • Timewave Form Analysis.
  • Phase Analysis.
  • Shaft Center Line Analysis.
  • Enveloping.
  • Mass Unbalance.
  • Misalignment.
  • Mechanical Looseness.
  • Bearing Defects.
  • Gearbox Analysis.
  • Resonance & Critical Speeds.
  • General Fault Recognition

6. Corrective Action

  • Basic Maintenance Actions.
  • * Lubrication.
  • *Alignment.
  • Shaft Alignment.
  • Field Balancing.

7. Equipment Knowledge 

  • Electrical Motor.
  • Steam & Gas Turbines.
  • Generators.
  • Drives.
  • Pumps.
  • Fans.
  • Compressors.
  • Reciprocating Machines.
  • Process Machines.
  • Machine Tools.
  • Pipes & Structures.
  • Gearboxes.
  • Rolling Elements.
  • Journal Bearings.
  • Gearing.
  • Coupling & Belts

8. Acceptance Testing

  • Basic Test Procedures.
  • Safety Requirements.
  • Specifications & Standards

9. Equipment Testing & Diagnosis 

  • Impact Testing.
  • Forced Response Testing.

10. Reference Standards 

  • ISO Standards.
  • IEC Standards.

11. Reporting & Documentation

  • Condition Monitoring Reports.
  • Vibration Diagnosis Reports.

12. Fault Severity Determination

  • Spectrum Analysis.
  • Timewave Analysis.
  • Orbit Analysis.
  • Alarm Levels (Overall, Narrowband, Components).
  • Severity Charts

13. Case Studies

14. Certification Exam

  • 3 Hours.
  • 100 Questions.
  • Closed Book.
  • On-Line.

Who Should Attend This Class?

Maintenance & Operations engineers, predictive maintenance technicians, maintenance planners, rotating equipment operators.

Class Time

There are 40 hours including 3 hours for the written exam.

Vibration Analysis ISO 18436-2 Category III

This course is intended for experienced vibration personnel.  The course provides advanced knowledge of different diagnostic techniques as well as knowledge about the operation of some common rotary machines, the problems they present and some current technological solutions to them.  It also provides insight into the capabilities of a multi-channel vibration analyzer in machine fault diagnostics and an introduction based on vibration.

Course Goals

At the end of the course, participants will know enough of the failure conditions of the machines and their solutions as well as how to successfully take control of the condition monitoring program, based upon the vibration situation and produce effective analysis data.

Personnel certified as Category III shall at least perform the following tasks:

  • Design, direct and establish routine condition monitoring programs and non-routine investigations for fault diagnosis.
  • Specify the appropriate vibration instrumentation hardware, software, and processing for portable monitoring systems, permanently installed surveillance systems, and equipment protection systems.
  • Have an in-depth knowledge of the principles and techniques of machinery VA and be able to make initial diagnoses of suspected faults beyond the range of commonly encountered issues. This should include, but not be limited to, the use of frequency spectra, time waveforms and orbits, transfer functions, basic operating deflection shapes, and acceleration enveloping under both steady state and transient conditions with or without a phase trigger.
  • Manage such condition-monitoring programs, evaluate the alarm sets, write working procedures and specify vibration acceptance testing procedures.
  • Initiate and validate machinery corrective actions including in situ two-plane rigid rotor balancing
  • Recommend restrictions to machine operation.
  • Understand and direct, when necessary, alternative condition monitoring technologies to verify or investigate issues raised through routine data collection.
  • Provide technical guidance to and instruct category I and II personnel.

Course Content 

0. Asset Management, RCM-R® & Maintenance Tactics

  • Asset Management.
  • RCM-R®.
  • Condition Monitoring.
  • Time Base Maintenance.
  • Detective Maintenance.
  • Run-to-Faiure.

1. Principle of Vibrations

  • Simple Harmonic Motion.
  • Period and Frequency.
  • Amplitude.
  • Parameters (Displacement, Velocity & Acceleration).
  • Vibration Displacement Units and Unit Conversions.
  • Time & Frequency Domain.
  • Phase Measurement.
  • Shaft Centerline Plot (Orbit) Analysis.
  • Vector & Modulation.
  • Force, Response, Damping, Stiffness.

2. Data Acquisition

  • Dynamic Range, Signa to Noise Ratio
  • Instruments & Transducers (Including Proximity Sensors).
  • Sensor Mounting Techniques.
  • Test Procedures.
  • Instruments Data Upload & Download.
  • Establishing Measurement Points.
  • Fmax, Acquisition Time.
  • Triggering.
  • Test Planning.
  • Data Formats.

3. Signal Processing

  • FFT Application.
  • Forcing Frequencies.
  • Order Normalization.
  • Overall Value.
  • Analog Recording.
  • FFT Computation.
  • Digital sampling.
  • Time Windows (Hanning, Uniform, Flat Top).
  • Filters (High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Tracking).
  • Antialiasing.
  • Bandwidth & Resolution.
  • Noise Reduction.
  • Averaging (Linear, Synchronous Time, Exponential).
  • Spectral Maps.

4. Condition Monitoring

  • Computer Based Set UP, Computer Base Maintenance
  • Equipment Evaluation and Prioritization.
  • Monitoring Program Design.
  • Alarms Set-Up (Overall, Narrowband, Envelope).
  • Baseline Assessment, Trending.
  • Route Design.
  • Alternative Technologies (Infrared, Oil Analysis, MCA, etc.).
  • Fault Condition Recognition.

5. Fault Analysis

  • Spectrum Analysis, Harmonics and Sidebands.
  • Timewave Form Analysis.
  • Phase Analysis.
  • Transient Analysis.
  • Orbit Analysis.
  • Enveloping.
  • Mass Unbalance.
  • Misalignment.
  • Mechanical Looseness.
  • Rubs, Instabilities.
  • Bearing Defects.
  • Electric Motor Defects.
  • Flow Induced Vibrations.
  • Gearbox Analysis.
  • Resonance & Critical Speeds.
  • Turbomachinery.
  • General Fault Recognition.

6. Corrective Action

  • Basic Maintenance Actions.
    • Lubrication.
    • Alignment.
  • Shaft Alignment.
  • Field Balancing.
  • Replacement of Machine Parts.
  • Isolation and Damping.
  • Resonance Control.

7. Equipment Knowledge

  • Electrical Motor.
  • Steam & Gas Turbines.
  • Generators.
  • Drives.
  • Pumps.
  • Fans.
  • Compressors.
  • Reciprocating Machines.
  • Process Machines.
  • Machine Tools.
  • Pipes & Structures.
  • Gearboxes.
  • Rolling Elements.
  • Journal Bearings.
  • Gearing.
  • Coupling & Belts.

8. Acceptance Testing

  • Basic Test Procedures.
  • Safety Requirements.
  • Specifications & Standards.

9. Equipment Testing & Diagnosis

  • Impact Testing.
  • Forced Response Testing.
  • Transient Analysis.
  • Transfer Functions.
  • Cross Channel Phase, Coherence.
  • Operating Deflection Shapes.
  • Modal Analysis.

10. Reference Standards

  • ISO Standards.
  • IEC Standards.

11. Reporting & Documentation

  • Condition Monitoring Reports.
  • Vibration Diagnostic Reports.

12. Fault Severity Determination

  • Spectrum Analysis.
  • Timewave Analysis.
  • Orbit Analysis.
  • Alarm Levels (Overall, Narrowband, Components).
  • Severity Charts.

13. Case Studies

14. Certification Exam

  • 4 hours.
  • 100 Questions.
  • Closed Book.
  • On-Line.

Who Should Attend This Class?

Maintenance & Operations engineers, predictive maintenance technicians, maintenance planners, rotating equipment operators.

Required Esperience

36 months of hands on vibration analysis.

Class Time

There are 40 hours including 4 hours for the written exam.

Vibration Alanysis ISO 18436-2 Category IV

This course is intended for highly experienced vibration personnel.  The course provides advanced knowledge of different diagnostic techniques as well as knowledge about the operation of some complex rotary machines, the problems they present and some current technological solutions to them. A certified category IV individual is likely to have a broad technical knowledge and experience in a variety of machine situations an techniques, and an in-depth knowledge of a selection of them.

Course Goals 

At the end of the course, participants will know enough of the failure conditions of special machines and their solutions as well as how to successfully take control of the condition monitoring program, based upon the vibration situation and produce effective analysis data. Certified Category IV personnel require all the knowledge and skills of a Category III certified person.  In addition, they shall be able to direct and audit condition monitoring strategies.

Personnel certified as Category IV shall at least perform the following tasks:

  • Apply vibration theory and techniques, including measurement and interpretation of multi-channel spectral results such as frequency response functions, phase and coherence.
  • Understand and perform signal analysis, including understanding of frequency and time domain processing, including orbits and their limitations.
  • Determine the natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping of systems, components and assemblies.
  • Determine and assess the operating deflection shapes of machines and connected structures and recommend means for correction.
  • Use generally recognized advanced techniques for VA, parameter identification, and fault diagnosis.
  • Apply the basic principles of rotor-bearing dynamics to vibration diagnosis.
  • Understand and apply advanced two-plane influence coefficient or static and couple balancing theory.
  • Recommend corrective actions or design modifications, including component change or repair, isolation, damping, change of stiffness and change of mass.
  • Interpret and evaluate codes of practice and specifications published in International Standards and other documents.
  • Recognize vibration caused by gas pulsation in machines, like reciprocating machines and screw compressors, be able to measure the necessary parameters, and recommend means for correction.
  • Recommend corrective actions for resilient mounting and other holding-down and foundation problems.

Course Content

0. Asset Management, RCM-R® & Maintenance Tactics

  • Asset Management.
  • RCM-R®.

1. Principle of Vibrations

  • Vector & Modulation.
  • Force, Response, Damping, Stiffness.
  • Natural Frequencies & Critical Speeds.
  • Force, Response, Damping, Stiffness.
  • Instabilities, Non-Linear Systems.

2. Data Acquisition

  • Dynamic Range, Signa to Noise Ratio.
  • Test Procedures.

3. Signal Processing

  • RMS & Peak Detection.
  • Analog to Digital Conversion.
  • Analog Recording.
  • Digital sampling.
  • FFT Computation.
  • Filters (High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Tracking).
  • Time Windows (Hanning, Uniform, Flat Top).
  • Antialiasing.
  • Bandwidth & Resolution.
  • Noise Reduction.
  • Averaging (Linear, Synchronous Time, Exponential).
  • Dynamic Range.
  • Signal to Noise Ration.
  • Spectral Maps.

4. Condition Monitoring

  • Monitoring Program Design.
  • Alternative Technologies (Infrared, Oil Analysis, MCA, etc.).

5. Fault Analysis

  • Spectrum Analysis, Harmonics and Sidebands.
  • Timewave Form Analysis.
  • Phase Analysis.
  • Transient Analysis.
  • Orbit Analysis.
  • Enveloping.
  • Rubs, Instabilities.
  • Electric Motor Defects.
  • Flow Induced Vibrations.
  • Resonance & Critical Speeds.
  • Turbomachinery.

6. Corrective Action

  • Field Balancing.
  • Flow Control.
  • Isolation and Damping.
  • Resonance Control.

7. Equipment Knowledge

  • Brief Review.

8. Acceptance Testing

  • Basic Test Procedures.
  • Safety Requirements.
  • Specifications & Standards.

9. Equipment Testing & Diagnosis

  • Impact Testing.
  • Forced Response Testing.
  • Transient Analysis.
  • Transfer Functions.
  • Cross Channel Phase, Coherence.
  • Operating Deflection Shapes.
  • Modal Analysis.
  • Torsional Vibration.

10. Reference Standards

  • ISO Standards.
  • IEC Standards.

11. Reporting & Documentation

  • Vibration Diagnostic Reports.

12. Fault Severity Determination

  • Spectrum Analysis.
  • Timewave Analysis.
  • Orbit Analysis.
  • Severity Charts.

13. Rotor & Bearing Dynamics

  • Rotor Characteristics.
  • Bearing Characteristics.
  • Rotor Balancing.

 14. Case Studies

15. Certification Exam

  • 5 hours.
  • 60 Questions.
  • Closed Book.
  • On-Line.

Who Should Attend This Class?

Maintenance & Operations engineers, predictive maintenance technicians, maintenance planners, rotating equipment operators.

Required Esperience

60 months of hands on vibration analysis.

Class Time

There are 64  hours including 5 hours for the written exam.